Note that the Specialisation in International Agri-Food Policy can be taken as a stand-alone certificate but also makes up a mandatory part of the Master's in Food, Society and International Food Governance and the Postgraduate Degree in Food Systems and Governance.


Module 1: Policy Analysis

1. Introduction and Overview of Global Food and Agriculture

1.1. Introduction to agriculture and food policy

1.2. Towards a systems approach to policy

1.3. Basic principles of agriculture and food policy

1.3.1. Trade

1.3.2. Safety

1.3.3. Health

1.3.4. Environment

1.3.5. Poverty reduction

1.4. Basic policy tools in agriculture and food

1.4.1. Subsidies and taxes (domestic and border measures)

1.4.2. Price controls

1.4.3. Trade barriers

1.4.4. Regulation

2. The Economics of Food Consumption

2.1. Determinants of food demand

2.2. Population growth and demographic transition

2.3. Economics of food demand

2.3.1. Demand functions and fundamentals of food consumption

2.3.2. Price and income elasticities

2.3.3. Aggregate consumption to individual intakes

2.4. Understanding Supply

2.4.1. Agriculture and food production

2.4.2. Farming systems

2.4.3. Resource use and externalities (positive and negative)

3. Markets, Prices, Policies and Trade

3.1. Markets and price formation

3.2. Why intervene in markets?

3.3. Role of government in provision of public goods

3.4. Changing structure of food markets

3.5. Policy instruments (redistribution, consumption and production subsidies)

3.6. Trade

3.6.1. Why trade?

3.6.2. Why not?

4. Critical Approaches to Policy Analysis

4.1. Introduction

4.2. The Policy Analysis Process

4.2.1. Developing a Research Question

4.2.2. Methods in Policy Analysis

4.2.3. Reconstruction of Policy Theory

4.2.4. Stakeholder analysis

4.2.5. Impact assessment

4.2.6. Cost-benefit analysis

4.2.7. Discourse analysis

4.2.8. The Role of Bias

4.3. Policy Development: Regimes and Frameworks

4.3.1. The Productionist Paradigm

4.3.2. The Life Sciences Integrated Paradigm

4.3.3. The Ecologically Integrated Paradigm

4.4. Case Study: Egg Policy in British Columbia, Canada

4.4.1. Introduction

4.4.2. Grading the Systems

4.4.3. Supply management

4.4.4. A Brief History of Agricultural Marketing Boards in Canada

4.4.5. British Columbia Egg Marketing Board

4.4.6. Opening up the Market: Small Lot Authorization Program

4.4.7. Expanding the Market

4.4.8. Starting the Analysis

4.4.9. What do the farmers have to say?

4.4.10. Conclusion

4.5. Paradigm Change

4.5.1. Case study: Dolphin-safe tuna: the need for integrated approaches to policies

4.5.2. What do the policies say?

4.5.3. Examples of dolphin-safe labels for tuna

4.5.4. Ecological issues associated with dolphin-friendly tuna fishing

4.5.5. Does this label do more harm than good?

4.6. Conclusion: Towards Environmental Policy Integration

5. Conclusion

5.1. Food policy developments and future new approaches

5.2. Concerns for the future: Policy considerations

5.2.1. Food safety

5.2.2. Trans-border diseases

5.2.3. Global value chains

5.2.4. Biodiversity

5.2.5. Cultural diversity

5.2.6. Climate change


Module 2: Agri-Food Policy, Food Safety and International Trade

1. Agriculture and trade

1.1. Scene setter

1.2. Agricultural, food and trade policy: concepts

1.2.1. Political economy of agricultural and food policy of trade policy

1.2.2. Economic concepts of agricultural and food policy of trade policy

1.2.3. Structure and evolution of agricultural, food and trade protectionism High income countries Low income countries

1.2.4. Impact of policy on food security and production

1.2.5. Linkages between domestic and trade measures

1.2.6. Trade measures and implications High income countries Low income countries

1.2.7. URAA

2. Food-related regulations (farm-to-fork)

2.1. Scene setter

2.2. "What is food?"

2.3. Origins of food-related regulations

2.4. Regulations in different stages of food chain

2.5. Types of food regulations

2.5.1. Food safety intro

2.5.2. Standards intro

2.5.3. Production processes

2.5.4. Labelling

2.5.5. Packaging

2.5.6. Inspections

2.5.7. Certification

2.5.8. Product testing

2.5.9. etc

2.6. Factors influencing food-related regulations

2.6.1. Differing perceptions of and preferences for food-related regulations across countries

2.6.2. Science-based regulations

2.6.3. Precautionary principle

2.6.4. Food-related regulations and industry

2.6.5. Costs and benefits of food-related regulations Costs of food-borne illness

2.7. "Markets for food regulation or government intervention?"

2.8. Implementation

2.9. Regulatory trends in food-related regulation in developed and developing countries

3. Agri-food standards

3.1. Scene setter

3.2. Food and agriculture standards

3.2.1. Definitions, what is food (recall earlier discussion)

3.2.2. Types of standards Public versus private overview Types of standard according to level Target standards Performance standards Specification standards Types of standards according to their use Food safety standards Marketing standards Grades Processing standards Pesticide residues and the like Labelling standards (including allergens, nutrition labelling, health claims) Packaging standards

3.3. Development of standards

3.3.1. Procedures, organizations, role of science

3.3.2. Use of science and technology

3.3.3. Social, cultural and political surroundings

3.3.4. Supply vs. demand driven standards

3.3.5. Process versus product based standard

3.3.6. Production processes methods incorporated in a product or not

3.3.7. Ethical issues (domestic and international)

3.4. Application of standards (legal considerations)

3.5. Implementation of standards

3.6. Accountability, transparency, and enforcement

3.7. Private standards

3.7.1. Definitions

3.7.2. Differences between public and private standards

3.7.3. Implications

3.7.4. Case studies on private standards

4. Food safety

4.1. What is food safety?

4.2. Setting up food safety regulations

4.2.1. Differing consumer perceptions of food safety across countries

4.2.2. Food safety as public health problem Developed countries Developing countries System-based risk assessment methods in food safety regulations HACCP Traceability

5. Other food-related regulations

5.1. Food quality

5.2. Organic standards

5.3. Geographical indicators

5.4. Animal welfare

5.5. Country of Origin Labelling (COOL)

5.6. Other issues

5.6.1. Self-governance

5.6.2. Certification schemes

6. Food- related regulations and agricultural production

7. Food-related regulations in trade: barriers or catalyst to trade

7.1. Conceptual relationship between food-related regulations and international trade

7.1.1. Standards

7.1.2. Food safety

7.1.3. Geographical indicators

7.1.4. Other examples

7.2. Approaches

7.2.1. Harmonisation

7.2.2. Equivalence

7.2.3. Conformity assessment

7.2.4. Mutual recognition

7.3. Potential issues

7.3.1. Same standards (regulations) Harmonized Harmonized but certification or conformity assessment required Extra-territorial application

7.3.2. Different standards (regulations)

7.4. Standards (regulations): the positive and negative aspects

7.4.1. Positive: Industry Trade Development

7.4.2. Negative: Industry Trade Development

7.5. Addressing potential disputes in multilateral and bilateral framework

7.5.1. Linkage to the WTO law course: TBT measures SPS measures Provisions for developing countries

7.5.2. Bilateral ways of solving possible disputes

7.6. Final thoughts: Harmonise between countries or not?

8. Methods of analyzing SPS and TBT measures

8.1. Sources and quality of data

8.1.1. WTO notifications

8.1.2. WITS

8.1.3. Business surveys

8.2. Analytical tools

8.2.1. Inventory approaches

8.2.2. Modelling

8.2.3. Other

8.3. Comparison of studies and results

8.3.1. SPS and TBT impact studies

8.3.2. Examples and case studies: Poultry Seafood Raspberries (Guatemala)

9. Emerging issues in agri-food policy, food safety and trade

9.1. Biosecurity

9.2. DDA

9.3. Climate change

9.4. Food miles

10. Conclusions and summary


Module 3: Introduction to Global Food Safety Law and Regulation

1. What is global food safety law?

1.1. The scope of food safety law in the global legal space

1.2. Food safety and its multidimensional nature: towards a general and multi-comprehensive regulation

1.2.1. Food safety and its extra-national nature: towards a global "as well as plural" regulation

1.2.2. Food safety and its interdisciplinary nature: towards a science-based and multi-disciplinary approach, performed into a public-oriented regulation

1.3. Conclusions

2. Global food safety law "in action": characters, problems and future perspectives

2.1. The "EC-Hormones"case

2.1.1. The case

2.1.2. "Based on"and "conform to"

2.1.3. Scientific justification

2.1.4. The precautionary principle

2.1.5. Conclusions: the effect and implementation of the DSB decision

2.2. The "EC-Biotech"case [extra reading + assignment]

2.2.1. The GMOs and their legal and regulatory framework

2.2.2. The case

2.2.3. The inclusion of the EC moratoria under the scope of the SPS Agreement

2.2.4. The interpretation of the procedural requirement of the SPS Agreement demanding to avoid undue delay in national authorization procedures

2.2.5. The interpretation of Art 5.7 and the exclusion of the precautionary principle from the SPS Agreement

2.2.6. The exclusion of the Cartagena Biosafety Protocol to integrate or interpret WTO law

2.2.7. Conclusions and assignment

2.3. Conclusions: positive and negative perspectives of the global food safety framework

3. The global legal framework of food safety law and regulation and its actors

3.1. Principles and rationale governing food safety law

3.1.1. The risk analysis procedure

3.1.2. The precautionary principle

3.1.3. Proportionality and reasonability

3.2. The "Joint Food Standards Programme" and the objectives of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

3.3. The International Office of Epizootics and the International Plant Protection Convention

3.3.1. The OIE

3.3.2. The IPPC

3.4. The SPS and the TBT Agreements

3.4.1. The SPS Agreement

3.4.2. TBT Agreement

3.5. The Cartagena Biosafety Protocol

3.6. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

3.6.1. The Global Forums of Food Safety Regulators

3.7. The World Health Organization (WHO)

3.7.1. The International Food Safety Authority Network

3.8. Conclusions

4. The Codex Alimentarius Commission

4.1. Two study cases of Codex standards: The international standard on irradiated foods and the international standard on corn

4.2. The organizational structure of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

4.2.1. The Commission and the other main bodies

4.2.2. The subordinate committees

4.2.3. The Joint FAO-WHO scientific committees

4.2.4. The National Codex Contact Points

4.3. The standard-setting activity of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

4.3.1. A global administrative procedure: features, positive issues and pitfalls

4.4. The legitimacy of the Codex Alimentarius Commission: values and drawbacks

5. Conclusions and summary of the course


Learning resources

Materials will be in English and will include written course materials, relevant websites, academic articles, books and magazine articles, among others.

Next enrolment

June 2018

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